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middle colonies demographics

The English captured the New Netherland Colony from the Dutch in 1664, renaming it the Province of New York after the King's brother, Duke of York James II. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and grist mills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies' prosperity. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax,[12] making it the leading food producer in the colonies, and later states, between the years of 1725 and 1840. [10] Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania before departing for the colony, which called for religious tolerance towards many groups, including the Religious Society of Friends and local natives. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, leading to a more diverse populace. In the middle colonies, where, according to the Gazette, about half the adults could sign their names, colonial leaders agreed that education was important but were not concerned with providing it. The Dutch maintained control of Delaware until 1664, when Sir Robert Carr took New Amstel for the Duke of York, renaming it New Castle. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials, led by David Lloyd. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies prosperity. Typically religious men of the English or Welsh origin that range from wealthy to lower middle class and are very determined if they crossed the seas to colonize. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. [16] Broad navigable rivers of relaxed current like the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, and the Hudson River attracted diverse business. However by the 1700's about 20% of New York's population was slaves. [15] In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow them a separate colonial assembly. English Catholics, Scotch Irish Presbyterians, German Lutherans and sectarians, Dutch Reformed, and Anglicans were well represented. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. Colonial status ended for the new state with the United States Declaration of Independence in July 1776. These tribes included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and Tappan. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. The most common solution was indentured servitude of young whites. He instead appointed governors, councils, and other officers to run the government. The population of the American Colonies, until the end of the 17th century, was almost entirely English. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. With the new arrivals came various religions which were protected in the Middle Colonies by written freedom of religion laws. The first Dutch settlements in the New York area first appeared around 1613. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. [14] A Deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. The Middle Colonies had the highest ratio of churches to population of the three sections of colonial America. [9] On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the New Jersey State Constitution, soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. HOME - HISTORY MAPS - American COLONIES: POPULATION 1775. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. The partly unglaciated Middle Colonies enjoyed fertile soil vastly different from the nearby New England Colonies, which contained more rocky soil. All boys learned a skill or trade. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. Civil unrest in Europe and other colonies saw an influx of immigrants to the Middle Colonies in the 18th century. Demographics in the colonies Both the Chesapeake and Southern colonies were made up of a majority of single, young, white men who worked as indentured servants. After Hyde was recalled to England in 1708 over charges of graft, bribery, and corruption, the governor of New York was charged to also preside over New Jersey. American Indian tribes had long occupied the area that was conquered as the British Middle Colonies. As the colonies were established throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the population grew immensely, starting at just 2,000 people and rising to over 2 million. Most were house servants in Manhattan, or farmworkers on Dutch estates. A Colonial Assembly convened in October 1683, making New York the last colony to seat an assembly. The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania saw moderate success in the textile and iron industry. This document provided religious freedom, no taxes without assembly approval, and a governor appointed by the proprietors. The Middle Colonies had many places where open access to deep water and protected coves line the shoreline. When the Duke of York James II became the King of England, New York became a royal province. On April 15, 1702, Queen Anne united West and East Jersey into one Royal Colony, the Province of New Jersey. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. The primary religion of the New England colonies was the strict Puritan Christianity originally brought to the Massachusetts Bay colony by ships like the Mayflower, but as the colonies grew and changed, some of the colonists began to move away from that base. Estimated population in the Colonies as of the year 1700. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. 1610 350 (all in Virginia) 1620 2,302 (Virginia and Plymouth Plantation) 1630 4,646 1640 26,634 The title of patroon was given to some of the Dutch colony's invested members, who operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. Philadelphia and New York became well-known trading centers, with Philadelphia in particular becoming an important shipbuilding center. *The Middle Colonies were part of the 13 original colonies.The colonies included in the Middle Colonies were: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Small congregations of Dutch Mennonites, French Huguenots, German Baptists, and Portuguese Jews joined larger established congregations of Dutch Reformed, Lutherans, Quakers, and Anglicans to create a unique religious society. The New England Colonies were a theocracy, which meant that the church controlled the government.The Middle Colonies had their government and church separated. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch established the patroon system, which resembled a feudal aristocracy governing vast land grants. Main article: Province of New York. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch poltroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland in western Germany. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe. [11][12] Penn's cousin William Markham served as the first colonial deputy governor.[10][12]. The New England colonies consisted of Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. The Southern Region, also known as the Chesapeake Colonies, included the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. [5], Main article: Province of Pennsylvania Chester Courthouse in Pennsylvania was built in 1724, King Charles II granted the land for the Pennsylvania Colony to William Penn on March 4, 1681 as payment for a debt the crown owed his family. In April 1775, American patriots formed the New York Provincial Congress to replace the assembly. Farms flourished and craftsmen established successful businesses. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. [20], The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. The Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than elsewhere in British North America and were somewhat more socially tolerant. https://theamericanhistory.fandom.com/wiki/The_Middle_Colonies?oldid=4248. The Duke of York and the King of England would later grant others ownership of the land which would become the Province of New Jersey and the Province of Pennsylvania. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland. The Middle Region included the colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. [12] In 1704, Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. Demarcated at the 42nd parallel north and 39th parallel north, Pennsylvania was bordered by the Delaware River and the colonies of New York, Maryland, and New Jersey. The Congress had Royal Governor William Franklin arrested on June 15, declaring him "an enemy to the liberties of this country". Reference Maps on the American Revolution 1775-1783. The Middle Colonies were explored by Henry Hudson on a journey into the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1609. In 1683, a law was passed that all children must be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade. Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion and forbade taxation without representation. Non-British colonists included Dutch Calvinist, Swedish Lutherans, Palantine Mennonites, and the Amish.[27]. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe. As we know, New York had a mixed colony of settlers. The United States Declaration of Independence ended their colonial status. Colonies in Northern America. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. After Bacon's Rebellion, the Chesapeake and Southern colonies moved towards using enslaved laborers brought from West Africa. The English colonies of New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Pennsylvania (PA) and Delaware (DE) are referred to as the 'middle colonies'. After joining the Dominion of New England, however, Rhode Island was permanently thought of as a New England colony. One difference was their demographic makeup. The Middle Colonies also practiced trade like New England, but typically they were trading raw materials for manufactured items. [12][17], The Middle Colonies political groups began as small groups with narrowly focused goals. Richard Nicolls served as the first governor of New York. The Duke of York never governed the colony himself. The colonies were divided into three regional areas; these included, the New England colonies known as the northern colonies, the middle colonies, and Middle Colonies Facts The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. The North American colonies that were settled by the English are often divided into three different groups: the New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies. Deep water allowed for numerous entries … [3] The Dutch would later recapture the colony in July 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, but gave the colony back to the English in the Treaty of Westminster in exchange for Suriname. As a consequence, early settlements of Germans from many different sects concentrated in the Middle Colonies. Thus, the definition of the Middle Colonies sometimes changed and overlapped with Rhode Island's colonial boundaries. [8] Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon became the royal colony's first governor. These indentured servants were the primary migrant to the British settlements of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, Jamaica and Barbados. Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. 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